1. Are there any other words besides BEDMAS that people use to remember the order of mathematical operations?

The words BEMA and BODMAS are sometimes used.

2. In the word BODMAS, what does the "O" stand for?

The "O" stands for "of" meaning multiply.

3. Do the rules for the order of operation work for algebra as well?

Yes. As an example, for 3x2 you have to do the exponent (squaring) first and then multiply by 3.