If a number is multipled together several times e.g. 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 if can be written in exponent form, 3^{4}
In the number 3^{4}, the 3 is called the base and the 4 is called the exponent, index orpower.
All mean the same thing!
Examples
3^{2}

9

3^{3}

27

3^{4}

81

Prime Factors
Natural numbers can be written as the product of prime numbers. These are best written in index form.
e.g. 36 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 = 2^{2} × 3^{2}
12 = 2 × 2 × 3 = 2^{2} × 3
Factor trees are useful for finding prime factors.
Square Roots
Squaring a number means multiplying it by itself.e.g. 3^{2} = 3 × 3 = 9
Finding the square root of a number is the opposite or inverse of doing this.e.g.
i.e. A number must be found which multiplies with itself to give the original number,
Some common square roots
1

4

9

16

25

36

49

64

81

100

121

144

400

10 000

1 000 000

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

20

100

1000

To find the square roots of numbers between the ones shown above, the easiest way is to use a calculator.
e.g. (rounded to 3 decimal places).